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Researching Chiropractic: Constipation, Cerebral Palsy, Ear Conditions and more

Chiropractic clinical case histories have been a regular feature of our patient newsletter since its inception. There seems to be no limit to the health problems that respond positively to chiropractic care. How many people suffering, reliant on medication and drugs, and facing a life of limitation could be helped by chiropractic care?

Probably most of them.


The patient, a 54-year-old woman, had been experiencing constipation for the past eight months, with less than three bowel movements per week. Along with this, she also complained of bloating in her stomach but without any pain. Chiropractic adjustments were performed on her C1, C2, T6, L4, and sacroiliac joints to address any vertebral subluxations. After receiving one month of care, the patient was able to have at least one bowel movement per day. (1)

Cerebral Palsy in an infant

An infant diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy was brought to a chiropractic clinic at the age of 3½ weeks. The baby boy had suffered from encephalopathy, a brain damage caused by low oxygen during birth. It took 30 minutes for the ambulance to arrive, and the infant was already 70 minutes old when he reached the hospital. The doctors had informed the parents that their child might be confined to a wheelchair for the rest of his life. However, after starting chiropractic treatment twice a week, adjustments were made to his sacrum, atlas, and cranium. As he progressed, the frequency of visits reduced to once a month over a period of five years. The patient’s mother also provided physical therapy sessions at home. As a result, the patient can now walk, talk, and function like any other normal child, although with slight developmental delays. The patient is no longer wheelchair-bound. (2)

Ear Conditions

Five individuals, ranging from infancy to five years old, were battling with persistent otitis media despite having been on antibiotics for no less than half a year. Each of these patients then embarked on a regime involving chiropractic care. Remarkably, they all showed signs of recovery within the time frame of 3 days to 8 weeks, with the results being highly satisfactory. Among the five, three patients had misalignment at the atlas vertebra; one manifested a dislocation at the occipital bone, while another had both atlas and axis vertebrae out of place. In addition to this, comprehensive spine adjustments were performed on them. [3]

Sciatica and Back Pain

A 30-year-old woman suffered from upper back pain and sciatica. She also had scoliosis and significant pelvic rotation. Medical interventions such as physical therapy failed to make significant improvements to her complaints.

Vertebral subluxations were found at the levels of C2, T6, and Right Ilium.

She was seen twice a week for six weeks and once a week for six weeks. After care, she reported a resolution of sciatica, a significant decrease in upper back pain, and marked improvements in neck and lower back ranges of motion. [4]

Do you know someone with these issues?

Please encourage them to make an appointment with us!

(517) 627-4547

  1. Acosta B. Resolution of Chronic Constipation in a 54-Year-Old Female Following Chiropractic Care: A Case Study & Review of the Literature Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research, Volume 2024 Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research. January 2, 2024, Pages 1-7
  2. Rubin D, Taylor C. Chiropractic Care & Long Term Follow Up of an Infant with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report & Review of the Literature. Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health Chiropractic, Volume 2023Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health, Chiropractic ~ December 12, 2023 ~ Pages 35-42
  3. Fysh PN. Chronic recurrent otitis media: case series of five patients with recommendations for case management. Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics 1996 1(2):66-78. 
  4. Hamstead A. Reduction of Upper Back Pain & Resolution of Sciatica Following Chiropractic Care to Reduce Vertebral Subluxation in a 30-Year-Old Female with Scoliosis: A Case Study Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research ~ January 16, 2024 ~ Volume 2024 ~ Pages 8-14

Chiropractic Care When You Are Feeling Down

In today’s fast-paced world, mental well-being is as crucial as physical health, yet it often receives less attention. While traditional mental health interventions focus on psychotherapy and medication, emerging evidence suggests that chiropractic care can also play a vital role in managing mood disorders and improving overall mental wellness. This holistic approach to health care, primarily known for addressing musculoskeletal issues, might offer a surprising benefit to those feeling mentally down.

The spine is a central conduit of nerve impulses throughout the body, and misalignments, known as subluxations, can disrupt this system, potentially affecting mood and mental health.

The connection between chiropractic adjustments and improved mental health lies in the body’s response to treatment. Adjustments to the spine can reduce physical pain, which in itself is a significant factor in mental distress. Chronic pain is a known contributor to depression, anxiety, and reduced quality of life. By alleviating this pain, chiropractic care can indirectly lift one’s mood and enhance feelings of well-being.

Moreover, chiropractic adjustments may influence the body’s biochemistry. Research suggests that spinal adjustments can lead to hormonal changes, including increases in endorphins and cortisol, which are associated with pain relief and mood elevation. These hormonal shifts can provide a natural boost to one’s mental state, particularly for those dealing with stress, anxiety, or mild depression.

A critical piece of evidence supporting the link between chiropractic care and improved mental health comes from a study published in the “Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research.” This research found significant improvements in psychological health in participants following chiropractic adjustments, with reductions in depression and anxiety scores. The study underscores the potential of chiropractic care as a complementary approach to traditional mental health treatments.

While chiropractic care is traditionally associated with physical health, its benefits may extend far beyond, offering a complementary solution for those feeling mentally down. By addressing the physical discomfort and promoting hormonal balance, chiropractic adjustments can play a role in improving mental wellness. As always, it’s essential to consult with healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate care plan for your specific needs. Integrating chiropractic care with conventional mental health interventions might provide a holistic path to improved well-being.

Make an appointment with us today.

What is a Subluxation?

From a chiropractic perspective, a subluxation is defined as a misalignment of the vertebrae, regarded as a key cause of health problems through its impact on the nervous system. Unlike the medical definition, which emphasizes partial dislocation of any joint, chiropractic subluxation focuses specifically on the spine and its influence on overall health. Chiropractors believe that these spinal subluxations can interfere with the body’s self-healing capabilities by disrupting the flow of nerve impulses between the brain and the rest of the body.

Subluxations are thought to result from various stress factors that can be physical (such as poor posture, accidents, or repetitive motions), chemical (like poor nutrition or substance abuse), or emotional (stress, anxiety). These stressors can lead to changes in the spinal tissues, causing vertebrae to move out of their normal position and potentially affect nerve function.

Symptoms of a subluxation may not be as immediately apparent as those of a medical subluxation and can vary widely among individuals. Some may experience back or neck pain, while others may have systemic issues such as digestive problems, headaches, or fatigue, suggesting that the effects of subluxations can extend beyond the immediate area of misalignment to influence overall health.

The chiropractic approach to removing subluxations is through adjustments, a specialized technique designed to correct vertebral misalignments, thereby restoring proper nerve function and promoting the body’s natural healing processes. Chiropractors use their hands or specific instruments to apply controlled force to the spine, aiming to realign the vertebrae to their proper position.

Research and clinical studies support the chiropractic assertion that addressing spinal subluxations can have a positive impact on overall health. For instance, a study published in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics highlights the potential benefits of chiropractic adjustments in improving nerve function and reducing pain (3).

In summary, from a chiropractic standpoint, a subluxation is not just a physical misalignment but a significant health concern with the potential to affect the nervous system and overall well-being. Chiropractors emphasize the importance of correcting these subluxations to maintain health and prevent disease.

How can chiropractic care enhance childhood development?

D.D. Palmer, the founder of chiropractic, posited that many health issues stem from misalignments in the spine (subluxations), which can impede the flow of innate intelligence or the body’s natural healing capability. For children, ensuring that the spine is properly aligned is believed to support the body’s natural development processes and overall health. Traditional chiropractic care aims to correct these subluxations through specific adjustments, thereby enhancing the nervous system’s function.

One of the primary ways chiropractic can enhance childhood development is by improving nervous system functionality. A healthy spine is crucial for a well-functioning nervous system, which in turn is essential for the growth and development of children. The nervous system controls and coordinates all the body’s organs and structures and plays a key role in developmental milestones such as walking, talking, and fine motor skills. By ensuring that there are no spinal misalignments, chiropractic care can support the optimal functioning of the nervous system, facilitating better health and development outcomes for children.

Additionally, chiropractic care has been associated with improvements in specific childhood issues such as colic, asthma, and ear infections, which can affect a child’s overall development and quality of life. A systematic review published in the “Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics” highlights the potential benefits of chiropractic interventions in reducing colic symptoms in infants, suggesting a positive impact on early developmental stages (1).

Furthermore, research documented in the “Chiropractic & Manual Therapies” journal indicates that chiropractic care may improve behavioral and emotional health outcomes in children, pointing to its holistic benefits on childhood development. These studies underline the significance of a well-aligned spine for general health and development, echoing D.D. Palmer’s foundational principles of chiropractic care.

Make an appointment with us today. 517-627-4547

[1] American Chiropractic Association. “What is Chiropractic?” Accessed April 2023. This reference provides a foundational understanding of chiropractic care, its principles, and its practice, highlighting the importance of continued care for overall health and wellness.

3 Food Myths Could Be Hurting Your Health

These 3 Food Myths Could Be Hurting Your Health, According to a Stanford Nutrition Professor

This article originally appeared in Fortune Magazine by Christopher Gardner and was updated: on Jan 19, 2017.

This week Christopher Gardner, a nutrition professor at Stanford University and a long-time vegetarian, debunks common misconceptions about healthy eating.

Now that the holidays have come and gone, it’s time to hunker down and commit to the resolutions we’ve made. For many of us, this means striving for and more importantly sticking to, a healthier diet.

Unfortunately what that actually entails can be hard to pin down. We live in the age of fad diets: Nutrients, foods, and entire regional cuisines are dismissed as unhealthy, only to be re-embraced shortly thereafter.

If you’re confused, at least take comfort in the fact you’re far from alone. With that in mind, I’ve decided to dispel some fundamental misconceptions about how we approach healthy eating.

  1. Carbohydrates. The anti-carb/low-carb craze has gone too far. No matter the health philosophy you prescribe to — be it veganism/vegetarianism/pescetarianism, or a Paleo/gluten-free/low-carb/high-fat diet — you’re likely in favor of eating a wide variety of delicious and vibrantly colorful non-starchy vegetables, such as heirloom tomatoes, butternut squash, carrots, mixed salad greens, swiss chard, and sweet red bell peppers. For carb watchers, the irony here is that these are all carbohydrate-rich foods (65% to 90% of their calories come from carbohydrates). For the record, beans, whole grains, fruits and all other vegetables are carbohydrate-rich foods, too.

So instead of stripping out all carbs from your diet, which would mean eliminating healthy and delicious foods such as the veggies listed above, focus on reducing your intake of added sugars (i.e. sugars not naturally found in fruits and other plant foods) and refined grain.

The average American consumes far too much of both. While the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommends that less than 10% of our daily calories should come from these sugars, the typical American exceeds that benchmark. This is true across all age groups, particularly for children two to 19 years old. On average, boys and girls in this demographic get around 16% of their daily calories from added sugars. Because the body breaks up and absorbs sugar very quickly, a sugary diet floods the bloodstream with high amounts of glucose. Over time, this can lead to a range of metabolic problems including obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

In addition to sugar, as a nation we’re eating far too much refined flour, the main ingredient in household staples such as white sliced bread, cereals, cookies, crackers, and pastries. Unlike whole grain flour, refined flour grain is milled to remove its bran and germ, which also removes most of its nutritional value, leaving behind starchy carbohydrates. Because starch is essentially just long strings of glucose, a diet high in refined flour can lead to many of the same problems as a diet packed with added sugars.

Bottom line: Instead of vilifying carbohydrates focus on eating whole, unprocessed meals and avoiding processed foods that often contain refined wheat and added sugars.

  1. Protein. Judging from the explosion of protein products — a category that includes bars, smoothies, and even protein water — you’d think our national diet is deficient in this basic food component.

Which, frankly, boggles my mind. As a country, we consume more protein per person than any other nation.

While some demographic groups do fall short of protein recommendations, including teenage girls and the elderly) others greatly exceed it. Teenage boys and adult men, for example, average 100 grams of protein a day, nearly double the recommended 56 grams.

In reality, it’s not hard to find naturally protein-rich foods. This goes for vegetarians and vegans as well. (Side note: Stop asking these folks where they get their protein. They are fine, really!) While lean meats such as chicken and salmon are good sources of the stuff, protein is also found in plant foods. And despite the widespread misunderstanding around the topic, it’s possible to get all 20 amino acids (including the nine essential amino acids not synthesized by our bodies and thus supplied only by our diets) from a combination of legumes, whole grains, nuts, vegetables, and fruits

Bottom line: Our obsession with artificial protein products is a distraction. In lieu of seeking out the protein powder, bars, etc., focus on eating a balanced diet (think lots of vegetables, legumes/beans, nuts, seafood, whole grains and fruits, and less processed snacks and foods high in saturated fat, salt and sugar).

  1. Fiber. What with all the attention being paid to carbohydrates and protein, it’s easy to forget about fiber. We shouldn’t, though. Fiber, which is a form of carbohydrate that we can’t digest and thus can’t be absorbed in our upper small intestine, travels on to our lower intestine and feeds the microbial community living in our colons. This may sound gross, but it’s important: A slew of recent research has connected the health of our gut bacterial populations, known as the microbiome, to our overall health, impacting everything from digestion to weight, to mental health.

In the absence of enough fiber, the microbiota chew on, and subsequently thin, the colon’s protective mucus lining, which wreaks havoc with our immune function and promotes an inflammatory state that can contribute to a variety of chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer.

If you’ve noticed a theme in this column, the trend doesn’t stop here. The solution to getting enough fiber is simple: eat more whole foods, especially nutrient-dense vegetables and other plant foods that are rich in fiber.

The final word: Don’t buy into the industry-driven hype. Stop fearing carbohydrates, and stop obsessing over protein products. Healthy eating isn’t about adding supplements or avoiding entire nutrient categories. Instead, it’s about consuming plenty of carbohydrate-rich (which usually means fiber-rich) plant foods, and balancing those with smaller amounts of grains, dairy, meat, and the occasional treat. Love your food, and let it love you back.


Researching Chiropractic: Rheumatoid Arthritis & Parkinson’s Disease

Chiropractic clinical case histories have been a regular feature of our patient newsletter since its inception. There seems to be no limit to the health problems that respond positively to chiropractic care. How many people suffering, reliant on medication and drugs, and facing a life of limitation could be helped by chiropractic care?

Probably most of them.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a condition that affects a 28-year-old woman. 

It is classified as a disorder with an unknown cause and is considered to be incurable. Apart from RA, she also experienced symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, dizziness, pain in the toes, and occasional double vision. To manage her symptoms, she was taking 500mg of NaproxenT multiple times a day and using moist heat on the affected joint.

After receiving care for 12 weeks, she no longer needed to take the prescription medications Methotrexate or Naproxen for her joint pain. Her symptoms of fatigue, swollen and painful joints, difficulty sleeping, headaches, dizziness, blurred or double vision, chest pain, frequent colds or flu, and digestive problems had significantly decreased.

At the time of this case study, she continues to receive care for her condition. (1)

A woman who is 58 years old is dealing with Parkinson’s disease. She experiences tremors in her right hand at rest, weakness in her right arm, and sluggish body movements. The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease was made one year before she started chiropractic care.

Over one year of care, she has seen significant improvements. Her muscle strength has increased, her range of motion in her neck has improved, and her neck and upper back muscles have become more relaxed. She has also noticed improvements in her resting tremors, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and weakness in her right arm. As a result, she has resumed daily walks for exercise. (2)

Do you know someone with these issues?

Please encourage them to make an appointment with us!

(517) 627-4547

  1. Brown D, Korten J. Improvement Following Subluxation-Based Corrective Chiropractic Care in a 28-Year-Old Female Diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Study & Review of Literature. Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research, Volume 2023. Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research ~ October 24, 2023 ~ Volume 2023 ~ Pages 141-149
  2. Coutinho K, Shuford M. Improved Health Outcomes in a 58-Year-Old Female Patient with Parkinson’s Disease Following Chiropractic Management Utilizing Diversified Technique: A Case Study & Review of the Literature. Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research, Volume 2023 Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research ~ October 2, 2023 ~ Vol. 2023 ~ Pp. 130-140..    

Traditional Eating: Eat Organic Foods in the Winter Months

Organic food has become increasingly popular recently, with many people choosing it for its health benefits and environmental sustainability. Particularly during the winter months, incorporating organic foods into one’s diet can have numerous advantages.

Organic foods are known for their higher nutritional value. Studies have shown that organic fruits and vegetables tend to have higher levels of certain nutrients, including antioxidants, compared to their conventionally grown counterparts (1).

During winter, when the body’s immune system often needs extra support to combat colds and flu, these additional nutrients can be particularly beneficial.

Another merit of eating organic food in winter is the reduced exposure to pesticides and synthetic fertilizers. These chemicals, commonly used in conventional agriculture, can have various adverse health impacts. By choosing organic, individuals reduce their intake of these potentially harmful substances. This is especially important in the colder months when the body might already be dealing with additional stress due to the harsher climate.

Moreover, eating seasonal and local organic produce can help reduce the carbon footprint associated with food transport. During winter, this means focusing on root vegetables, winter squashes, and hardy greens, which are typically available from local sources. This not only ensures freshness but also supports local economies.

Consuming organic food during winter offers several benefits, including higher nutritional content, reduced exposure to harmful chemicals, support for sustainable farming practices, and a lower carbon footprint. As awareness of these advantages grows, more people will likely turn to organic food options, particularly during the challenging winter season.

  1. Baranski, M., et al. (2014). Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: a systematic literature review and meta-analyses. British Journal of Nutrition, 112(5), 794-811 

Chiropractic Care for Menstrual Cramps: A Natural Remedy

Menstrual cramps, medically termed dysmenorrhea, is a condition experienced by many women around the world. These painful sensations in the lower abdomen or pelvis are often accompanied by aches in the lower back and thighs, affecting the daily life and well-being of countless individuals. While over-the-counter medications can provide some relief, an increasing number of women are turning to alternative therapies, like chiropractic care, for a holistic approach to their discomfort.

menstrual cramps

Chiropractic care focuses on the relationship between the spine’s structure and the body’s function, regulated by the nervous system. A misaligned spine can interfere with this connection, potentially leading to various health concerns, including menstrual discomfort. A chiropractor’s primary objective is to correct these misalignments, known as subluxations, through spinal adjustments.

There are several ways in which chiropractic care can benefit those suffering from menstrual cramps:

Improved Nervous System Function: The spine houses the spinal cord, a crucial part of the central nervous system. By realigning the spine, chiropractors can enhance nerve function, ensuring that every body part, including the reproductive system, works optimally.

Enhanced Pelvic Alignment: A misaligned pelvis can exacerbate menstrual pain. Chiropractic adjustments aim to correct any misalignment in the pelvis, which can alleviate tension and pain during menstruation.

Reduced Muscle Tension: Chiropractic care often incorporates soft tissue techniques and stretches, which can relieve muscle tightness in the lower back and abdomen associated with menstrual cramps.

Research indicates a positive correlation between chiropractic care and reduced menstrual discomfort. A study published in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics found that many patients experienced relief from dysmenorrhea after spinal adjustments (2).

Chiropractic care can serve as a safe, natural, and effective alternative to traditional medications, offering relief to many who suffer from the recurring pain of menstrual cramps.

Call us to make an appointment today! (517) 627-4547

Why Should You Return to See a Chiropractor?

The importance of maintaining optimal spinal health cannot be overstated. Many individuals experience immediate relief after their initial chiropractic session, but it’s essential to recognize that consistent chiropractic care offers long-term benefits that go beyond momentary comfort.

Regular chiropractic adjustments can help in preventing future injuries. Just as we exercise to keep our muscles robust and engage in activities promoting cardiovascular health, ensuring our spine is in its best condition is equally vital. Chiropractors emphasize the proactive maintenance of spinal health, which can prevent the onset of issues before they become more pronounced and difficult to correct.

Moreover, consistent chiropractic visits can improve posture, especially for individuals who spend extended periods sitting or engaging in repetitive tasks. Poor posture not only affects our appearance but also leads to an array of health issues, such as back pain, neck pain, and decreased lung capacity. Regular adjustments can help realign the spine and promote better postural habits.

Another noteworthy benefit is the enhancement of the body’s overall function. The nervous system is the primary communicator within our body, and any misalignment can hinder this communication, leading to decreased bodily function. Chiropractic care ensures that the spine, which houses the nervous system, functions optimally, ensuring the entire body operates at its peak.

Furthermore, a study published in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics found that chiropractic care can boost the immune system, which is crucial for fighting illnesses and infections (1).

While immediate relief from pain or discomfort following a chiropractic adjustment is undoubtedly beneficial, the long-term advantages make regular visits invaluable. Whether you’re aiming to prevent future injuries, improve your posture, enhance your body’s overall functionality, or boost your immune system, returning to see a chiropractor is a decision that can significantly improve your quality of life.

Call today for an appointment. 517627-4547

1.Teodorczyk-Injeyan, J. A., Injeyan, H. S., & Ruegg, R. (2006). Spinal manipulative therapy reduces inflammatory cytokines but not substance P production in normal subjects. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 29(1), 14-21  

RESEARCHING CHIROPRACTIC: Migraines, Hypnic Headaches, Ear Infections, Tic Douloureux

Chiropractic clinical case histories have been a regular feature of our patient newsletter since its inception. There seems to be no limit to the health problems that respond positively to chiropractic care. How many people suffering, reliant on medication and drugs, and facing a life of limitation could be helped by chiropractic care? Probably most of them.

Migraine and Hypnic Headaches.

For 15 years, a 59-year-old woman had been experiencing migraines and hypnic headaches, which occur during sleep, along with nausea and skin rashes. Migraines are a significant global health concern with a prevalence of 10%, ranking seventh in leading causes of disability. Hypnic headaches, however, are less common. Despite taking prescription drugs RelpaxT, TylenolT, and receiving massages for her migraines, the patient found no relief. It’s worth noting that the patient’s mother also experienced the same issues during menopause. After three months of twice-a-week chiropractic care, followed by six weeks of once-a-week visits, the patient found relief from her headaches and experienced additional health improvements. (1)

Neck pain, Ear Infections, and headaches in a young girl.

A 9½-year-old girl went to a chiropractic clinic because of chronic ear infections, neck pain, and headaches. Upon examination of her cervical spine, the doctors found hyperlordosis, hypertonicity of paraspinal musculature, lymphadenopathy, decreased ROM, positive orthopedic tests, and chiropractic subluxations. She was scheduled to receive three treatments per week for three weeks, and afterward, her otolaryngologist reported a 95% reduction in her hearing loss. Her scheduled tympanostomy tube surgery was canceled due to her improved condition. (2)

Tic douloureux. 

A 62-year-old woman had suffered from an intense, persistent, and often disabling form of facial pain known as “tic douloureux,” or Trigeminal neuralgia, for two years. Commonly referred to as the “suicide disease” due to its extreme pain, the woman had endured three separate car accidents in the past 27 years before the onset of symptoms; however, they did not appear until after a dental procedure on a wisdom tooth on the right side of her face. To alleviate her suffering, the woman had tried numerous prescription drugs and alternative supplements prescribed by multiple physicians and specialists, spending over $9,000 of her own money in the process. After receiving 26 chiropractic adjustments, the patient reported a significant reduction in the frequency and duration of her pain. (3)

Do you know someone with any of these issues?

Please encourage them to make an appointment with us!

(517) 627-4547


  1. Niddery E, Alcantara J. Resolution of chronic migraines and hypnic headaches in a 59-year-old female: a case report & review of the literature. Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research. September 2, 2019:117-126
  2. O’Connor K, Schneider G, Alcantara J. Resolution of otitis media, improvement in hearing & avoidance of myringotomy tubes following chiropractic care in a child: a case report & selective review of the literature. Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health – Chiropractic. 2014;3:47-54.
  3. Cramer J, Persky A. Reduction of chronic trigeminal neuralgia following upper cervical specific chiropractic care: a case report & review of the literature. Journal of Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. September 9, 2019:56-62.